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Global kinomic and phospho-proteomic analyses of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

CiteULike malaria tags - 16 February 2017 - 2:22pm
Nat Commun, Vol. 2 (2011), doi:10.1038/ncomms1558

The role of protein phosphorylation in the life cycle of malaria parasites is slowly emerging. Here we combine global phospho-proteomic analysis with kinome-wide reverse genetics to assess the importance of protein phosphorylation in Plasmodium falciparum asexual proliferation. We identify 1177 phosphorylation sites on 650 parasite proteins that are involved in a wide range of general cellular activities such as DNA synthesis, transcription and metabolism as well as key parasite processes such as invasion and cyto-adherence. Several parasite protein kinases are themselves phosphorylated on putative regulatory residues, including tyrosines in the activation loop of PfGSK3 and PfCLK3; we show that phosphorylation of PfCLK3 Y526 is essential for full kinase activity. A kinome-wide reverse genetics strategy identified 36 parasite kinases as likely essential for erythrocytic schizogony. These studies not only reveal processes that are regulated by protein phosphorylation, but also define potential anti-malarial drug targets within the parasite kinome.
L Solyakov, J Halbert, MM Alam, JP Semblat, D Dorin-Semblat, L Reininger, AR Bottrill, S Mistry, A Abdi, C Fennell, Z Holland, C Demarta, Y Bouza, A Sicard, MP Nivez, S Eschenlauer, T Lama, DC Thomas, P Sharma, S Agarwal, S Kern, G Pradel, M Graciotti, AB Tobin, C Doerig
Categories: malaria news feeds

Finding the needle in the haystack

CiteULike malaria tags - 16 February 2017 - 1:14pm
Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 15, No. 3. (13 February 2017), pp. 136-136, doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.7

This month's Genome Watch discusses the potential of selective whole-genome amplification for overcoming the challenges of whole-genome sequencing of malaria parasites in clinical samples in which they are low in abundance.
Gavin Rutledge, Cristina Ariani
Categories: malaria news feeds

P113 is a merozoite surface protein that binds the N terminus of Plasmodium falciparum RH5

CiteULike malaria tags - 16 February 2017 - 11:36am
Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (10 February 2017), 14333, doi:10.1038/ncomms14333
Francis Galaway, Laura Drought, Maria Fala, Nadia Cross, Alison Kemp, Julian Rayner, Gavin Wright
Categories: malaria news feeds

Phenoplasm: a database of disruption phenotypes for malaria parasite genes

CiteULike malaria tags - 9 February 2017 - 1:21pm
bioRxiv (02 February 2017), 101717, doi:10.1101/101717

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution
Theo Sanderson, Julian Rayner
Categories: malaria news feeds

The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion: a molecular epidemiology observational study

CiteULike malaria tags - 9 February 2017 - 11:36am
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (February 2017), doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30048-8

Evidence suggests that the PfKelch13 mutations that confer artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria have multiple independent origins across the Greater Mekong subregion, which has motivated a regional malaria elimination agenda. We aimed to use molecular genotyping to assess antimalarial drug resistance selection and spread in the Greater Mekong subregion. In this observational study, we tested Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Myanmar, northeastern Thailand, southern Laos, and western Cambodia for PfKelch13 mutations and for Pfplasmepsin2 gene amplification (indicating piperaquine resistance). We collected blood spots from patients with microscopy or rapid test confirmed uncomplicated falciparum malaria. We used microsatellite genotyping to assess genetic relatedness. As part of studies on the epidemiology of artemisinin-resistant malaria between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2015, we collected 434 isolates. In 2014–15, a single long PfKelch13 C580Y haplotype (−50 to +31·5 kb) lineage, which emerged in western Cambodia in 2008, was detected in 65 of 88 isolates from northeastern Thailand, 86 of 111 isolates from southern Laos, and 14 of 14 isolates from western Cambodia, signifying a hard transnational selective sweep. Pfplasmepsin2 amplification occurred only within this lineage, and by 2015 these closely related parasites were found in ten of the 14 isolates from Cambodia and 15 of 15 isolates from northeastern Thailand. C580Y mutated parasites from Myanmar had a different genetic origin. Our results suggest that the dominant artemisinin-resistant P falciparum C580Y lineage probably arose in western Cambodia and then spread to Thailand and Laos, outcompeting other parasites and acquiring piperaquine resistance. The emergence and spread of fit artemisinin-resistant P falciparum parasite lineages, which then acquire partner drug resistance across the Greater Mekong subregion, threatens regional malaria control and elimination goals. Elimination of falciparum malaria from this region should be accelerated while available antimalarial drugs still remain effective. The Wellcome Trust and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Mallika Imwong, Kanokon Suwannasin, Chanon Kunasol, Kreepol Sutawong, Mayfong Mayxay, Huy Rekol, Frank Smithuis, Tin Hlaing, Kyaw Tun, Rob van der Pluijm, Rupam Tripura, Olivo Miotto, Didier Menard, Mehul Dhorda, Nicholas Day, Nicholas White, Arjen Dondorp
Categories: malaria news feeds

Antibody-independent mechanisms regulate the establishment of chronic Plasmodium infection

CiteULike malaria tags - 9 February 2017 - 11:27am
Nature Microbiology, Vol. 2 (6 February 2017), 16276, doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.276
Thibaut Brugat, Adam Reid, Jing-wen Lin, Deirdre Cunningham, Irene Tumwine, Garikai Kushinga, Sarah McLaughlin, Philip Spence, Ulrike Böhme, Mandy Sanders, Solomon Conteh, Ellen Bushell, Tom Metcalf, Oliver Billker, Patrick Duffy, Chris Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Jean Langhorne
Categories: malaria news feeds

K13-Propeller Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Malaria Endemic Regions of Vietnam from 2009 to 2016

CiteULike malaria tags - 2 February 2017 - 1:49pm
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (30 January 2017), AAC.01578-16, doi:10.1128/aac.01578-16

The spread of artemisinin resistant P. falciparum compromises the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) and is considered the greatest threat to current global initiatives to control and eliminate malaria. This is particularly relevant for Vietnam, where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is the recommended ACT for P. falciparum. The propeller domain gene of K13, a molecular marker of artemisinin resistance, was sequenced successfully in 1060 P. falciparum isolates collected at 3 malaria hotspots in Vietnam between 2009 and 2016. Eight K13 propeller mutations (Thr474Ile, Tyr493His, Arg539Thr, Ile543Thr, Pro553Leu, Val568Gly, Pro574Leu and Cys580Tyr) were found, including several that have been validated as artemisinin resistant markers. The prevalences of K13 mutations were 29% (222/767), 6% (11/188) and 43% (45/105) in in Binh Phuoc, Ninh Thuan and Gia Lai respectively. Cys580Tyr became the dominant genotype in recent years comprising 79.1% (34/43) of isolates in Binh Phuoc and 63% (17/27) in Gia Lai Province. K13 mutations were associated with reduced ring stage susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in-vitro and prolonged parasite clearance in-vivo. An analysis of haplotypes flanking K13 suggested the presence of multiple strains with Cys580Tyr, rather than a single strain expanding across the three sites.
Nguyen Thuy-Nhien, Nguyen Tuyen, Nguyen Tong, Tuong Vy, Ngo Thanh, Huynh Van, Pham Huong-Thu, Huynh Quang, Maciej Boni, Christiane Dolecek, Jeremy Farrar, Guy Thwaites, Olivo Miotto, Nicholas White, Tran Hien
Categories: malaria news feeds

SC83288 is a clinical development candidate for the treatment of severe malaria.

CiteULike malaria tags - 2 February 2017 - 12:30pm
Nature communications, Vol. 8 (31 January 2017)

Severe malaria is a life-threatening complication of an infection with the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which requires immediate treatment. Safety and efficacy concerns with currently used drugs accentuate the need for new chemotherapeutic options against severe malaria. Here we describe a medicinal chemistry program starting from amicarbalide that led to two compounds with optimized pharmacological and antiparasitic properties. SC81458 and the clinical development candidate, SC83288, are fast-acting compounds that can cure a P. falciparum infection in a humanized NOD/SCID mouse model system. Detailed preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies reveal no observable drawbacks. Ultra-deep sequencing of resistant parasites identifies the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transporting PfATP6 as a putative determinant of resistance to SC81458 and SC83288. Features, such as fast parasite killing, good safety margin, a potentially novel mode of action and a distinct chemotype support the clinical development of SC83288, as an intravenous application for the treatment of severe malaria.
Stefano Pegoraro, Maëlle Duffey, Thomas Otto, Yulin Wang, Roman Rösemann, Roland Baumgartner, Stefanie Fehler, Leonardo Lucantoni, Vicky Avery, Alicia Moreno-Sabater, Dominique Mazier, Henri Vial, Stefan Strobl, Cecilia Sanchez, Michael Lanzer
Categories: malaria news feeds

THE REAL McCOIL: A method for the concurrent estimation of the complexity of infection and SNP allele frequency for malaria parasites

CiteULike malaria tags - 2 February 2017 - 11:01am
PLOS Computational Biology, Vol. 13, No. 1. (26 January 2017), e1005348, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005348

As many malaria-endemic countries move towards elimination of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, effective tools for monitoring malaria epidemiology are urgent priorities. P. falciparum population genetic approaches offer promising tools for understanding transmission and spread of the disease, but a high prevalence of multi-clone or polygenomic infections can render estimation of even the most basic parameters, such as allele frequencies, challenging. A previous method, COIL, was developed to estimate complexity of infection (COI) from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, but relies on monogenomic infections to estimate allele frequencies or requires external allele frequency data which may not available. Estimates limited to monogenomic infections may not be representative, however, and when the average COI is high, they can be difficult or impossible to obtain. Therefore, we developed THE REAL McCOIL, Turning HEterozygous SNP data into Robust Estimates of ALelle frequency, via Markov chain Monte Carlo, and Complexity Of Infection using Likelihood, to incorporate polygenomic samples and simultaneously estimate allele frequency and COI. This approach was tested via simulations then applied to SNP data from cross-sectional surveys performed in three Ugandan sites with varying malaria transmission. We show that THE REAL McCOIL consistently outperforms COIL on simulated data, particularly when most infections are polygenomic. Using field data we show that, unlike with COIL, we can distinguish epidemiologically relevant differences in COI between and within these sites. Surprisingly, for example, we estimated high average COI in a peri-urban subregion with lower transmission intensity, suggesting that many of these cases were imported from surrounding regions with higher transmission intensity. THE REAL McCOIL therefore provides a robust tool for understanding the molecular epidemiology of malaria across transmission settings. Monitoring malaria epidemiology is critical for evaluating the impact of interventions and designing strategies for control and elimination. Population genetics has been used to inform malaria epidemiology, but it is limited by the fact that a fundamental metric needed for most analyses—the frequency of alleles in a population—is difficult to estimate from blood samples containing more than one genetically distinct parasite (polygenomic infections). A widely used approach has been to restrict analysis to monogenomic infections, which may represent a biased subset and potentially ignores a large amount of data. Therefore, we developed a new analytical approach that uses data from all infections to simultaneously estimate allele frequency and the number of distinct parasites within each infection. The method, called THE REAL McCOIL, was evaluated using simulations and was then applied to data from cross-sectional surveys performed in three regions of Uganda. Simulations demonstrated accurate performance, and analyses of samples from Uganda using THE REAL McCOIL revealed epidemiologically relevant differences within and between the three regions that previous methods could not. THE REAL McCOIL thus facilitates population genetic analysis when there are polygenomic infections, which are common in many malaria endemic areas.
Hsiao-Han Chang, Colin Worby, Adoke Yeka, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Moses Kamya, Sarah Staedke, Grant Dorsey, Maxwell Murphy, Daniel Neafsey, Anna Jeffreys, Christina Hubbart, Kirk Rockett, Roberto Amato, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Caroline Buckee, Bryan Greenhouse
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Innovative financing for health: What is truly innovative?

CiteULike malaria tags - 1 February 2017 - 5:24pm
In The Lancet, Vol. 380, No. 9858. (2012), pp. 2044-2049, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61460-3

Development assistance for health has increased every year between 2000 and 2010, particularly for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, to reach US$26·66 billion in 2010. The continued global economic crisis means that increased external fi nancing from traditional donors is unlikely in the near term. Hence, new funding has to be sought from innovative fi nancing sources to sustain the gains made in global health, to achieve the health Millennium Development Goals, and to address the emerging burden from non-communicable diseases. We use the value chain approach to conceptualise innovative fi nancing. With this framework, we identify three integrated innovative fi nancing mechanisms-GAVI, Global Fund, and UNITAID-that have reached a global scale. These three fi nancing mechanisms have innovated along each step of the innovative fi nance value chain-namely resource mobilisation, pooling, channelling, resource allocation, and implementation-and integrated these steps to channel large amounts of funding rapidly to low-income and middle-income countries to address HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and vaccine-preventable diseases. However, resources mobilised from international innovative fi nancing sources are relatively modest compared with donor assistance from traditional sources. Instead, the real innovation has been establishment of new organisational forms as integrated fi nancing mechanisms that link elements of the fi nancing value chain to more eff ectively and effi ciently mobilise, pool, allocate, and channel fi nancial resources to low-income and middle-income countries and to create incentives to improve implementation and performance of national programmes. These mechanisms provide platforms for health funding in the future, especially as eff orts to grow innovative fi nancing have faltered. The lessons learnt from these mechanisms can be used to develop and expand innovative fi nancing from international sources to address health needs in low-income and middle-income countries.
R Atun, FM Knaul, Y Akachi, J Frenk
Categories: malaria news feeds

Spatial association with PTEX complexes defines regions for effector export into Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.

CiteULike malaria tags - 1 February 2017 - 2:01pm
Nature communications, Vol. 4 (2013), pp. 1415-1415, doi:10.1038/ncomms2449

Export of proteins into the infected erythrocyte is critical for malaria parasite survival. The majority of effector proteins are thought to export via a proteinaceous translocon, resident in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding the parasite. Identification of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins and its biochemical association with exported proteins suggests it performs this role. Direct evidence for this, however, is lacking. Here using viable purified Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy, we investigate remodelling events immediately following parasite invasion. We show that multiple complexes of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins localize together in foci that dynamically change in clustering behaviour. Furthermore, we provide conclusive evidence of spatial association between exported proteins and exported protein 2, a core component of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins, during native conditions and upon generation of translocation intermediates. These data provide the most direct cellular evidence to date that protein export occurs at regions of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane housing the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins complex.
David Riglar, Kelly Rogers, Eric Hanssen, Lynne Turnbull, Hayley Bullen, Sarah Charnaud, Jude Przyborski, Paul Gilson, Cynthia Whitchurch, Brendan Crabb, Jake Baum, Alan Cowman
Categories: malaria news feeds

The origins of apicomplexan sequence innovation

CiteULike malaria tags - 30 January 2017 - 8:42pm
In Genome Research, Vol. 19, No. 7. (2009), pp. 1202-1213, doi:10.1101/gr.083386.108

The Apicomplexa are a group of phylogenetically related parasitic protists that include Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma. Together they are a major global burden on human health and economics. To meet this challenge, several international consortia have generated vast amounts of sequence data for many of these parasites. Here, we exploit these data to perform a systematic analysis of protein family and domain incidence across the phylum. A total of 87,736 protein sequences were collected from 15 apicomplexan species. These were compared with three protein databases, including the partial genome database, PartiGeneDB, which increases the breadth of taxonomic coverage. From these searches we constructed taxonomic profiles that reveal the extent of apicomplexan sequence diversity. Sequences without a significant match outside the phylum were denoted as apicomplexan specialized. These were collated into 9134 discrete protein families and placed in the context of the apicomplexan phylogeny, identifying the putative origin of each family. Most apicomplexan families were associated with an individual genus or species. Interestingly, many genera-specific innovations were associated with specialized host cell invasion and/or parasite survival processes. Contrastingly, those families reflecting more ancestral relationships were enriched in generalized housekeeping functions such as translation and transcription, which have diverged within the apicomplexan lineage. Protein domain searches revealed 192 domains not previously reported in apicomplexans together with a number of novel domain combinations. We highlight domains that may be important to parasite survival.
James Wasmuth, Jennifer Daub, Jose Peregrin-Alvarez, Constance Finney, John Parkinson
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Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale genomes provide insights into malaria parasite evolution

CiteULike malaria tags - 26 January 2017 - 11:50am
Nature, Vol. advance online publication (25 January 2017), doi:10.1038/nature21038
Gavin Rutledge, Ulrike Böhme, Mandy Sanders, Adam Reid, James Cotton, Oumou Maiga-Ascofare, Abdoulaye Djimdé, Tobias Apinjoh, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Magnus Manske, John Barnwell, François Renaud, Benjamin Ollomo, Franck Prugnolle, Nicholas Anstey, Sarah Auburn, Ric Price, James McCarthy, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Chris Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Thomas Otto
Categories: malaria news feeds

Culture adaptation of malaria parasites selects for convergent loss-of-function mutants

CiteULike malaria tags - 26 January 2017 - 10:46am
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7 (24 January 2017), 41303, doi:10.1038/srep41303
Antoine Claessens, Muna Affara, Samuel Assefa, Dominic Kwiatkowski, David Conway
Categories: malaria news feeds

Microstructured Blood Vessel Surrogates Reveal Structural Tropism of Motile Malaria Parasites

CiteULike malaria tags - 25 January 2017 - 6:08pm
Adv. Healthcare Mater. (1 January 2017), pp. n/a-n/a, doi:10.1002/adhm.201601178

Plasmodium sporozoites, the highly motile forms of the malaria parasite, are transmitted naturally by mosquitoes and traverse the skin to find, associate with, and enter blood capillaries. Research aimed at understanding how sporozoites select blood vessels is hampered by the lack of a suitable experimental system. Arrays of uniform cylindrical pillars can be used to study small cells moving in controlled environments. Here, an array system displaying a variety of pillars with different diameters and shapes is developed in order to investigate how Plasmodium sporozoites associate to the pillars as blood vessel surrogates. Investigating the association of sporozoites to pillars in arrays displaying pillars of different diameters reveals that the crescent-shaped parasites prefer to associate with and migrate around pillars with a similar curvature. This suggests that after transmission by a mosquito, malaria parasites may use a structural tropism to recognize blood capillaries in the dermis in order to gain access to the blood stream.
Mendi Muthinja, Johanna Ripp, Janina Hellmann, Tamas Haraszti, Noa Dahan, Leandro Lemgruber, Anna Battista, Lucas Schütz, Oliver Fackler, Ulrich Schwarz, Joachim Spatz, Friedrich Frischknecht
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Motility precedes egress of malaria parasites from oocysts

CiteULike malaria tags - 25 January 2017 - 12:56pm
eLife, Vol. 6 (jan 2017), e19157, doi:10.7554/elife.19157

Malaria is transmitted when an infected Anopheles mosquito deposits Plasmodium sporozoites in the skin during a bite. Sporozoites are formed within oocysts at the mosquito midgut wall and are released into the hemolymph, from where they invade the salivary glands and are subsequently transmitted to the vertebrate host. We found that a thrombospondin-repeat containing sporozoite-specific protein named thrombospondin-releated protein 1 (TRP1) is important for oocyst egress and salivary gland invasion, and hence for the transmission of malaria. We imaged the release of sporozoites from oocysts in situ, which was preceded by active motility. Parasites lacking TRP1 failed to migrate within oocysts and did not egress, suggesting that TRP1 is a vital component of the events that precede intra-oocyst motility and subsequently sporozoite egress and salivary gland invasion.
Dennis Klug, Friedrich Frischknecht
Categories: malaria news feeds

Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey

CiteULike malaria tags - 19 January 2017 - 1:32pm
Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 10, No. 1. (11 January 2017), doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1933-3
Raymond Tabue, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Jean Atangana, Antonio-Nkondjio, Jean Toto, Salomon Patchoke, Rose Leke, Etienne Fondjo, Abraham Mnzava, Tessa Knox, Alexis Tougordi, Martin Donnelly, Jude Bigoga
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Deconvoluting multiple infections in Plasmodium falciparum from high throughput sequencing data

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 January 2017 - 9:01am
bioRxiv (10 January 2017), 099499, doi:10.1101/099499

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution
Sha Zhu, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Gil McVean
Categories: malaria news feeds

Capturing in vivo RNA transcriptional dynamics from the malaria parasite P. falciparum

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 January 2017 - 9:00am
bioRxiv (12 January 2017), 099549, doi:10.1101/099549

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution
Heather Painter, Manuela Carrasquilla, Manuel Llinás
Categories: malaria news feeds

Characterisation of the opposing effects of G6PD deficiency on cerebral malaria and severe malarial anaemia

CiteULike malaria tags - 12 January 2017 - 11:41am
eLife, Vol. 6 (jan 2017), e15085, doi:10.7554/elife.15085

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is believed to confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the precise nature of the protective effect has proved difficult to define as G6PD deficiency has multiple allelic variants with different effects in males and females, and it has heterogeneous effects on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infection. Here we report an analysis of multiple allelic forms of G6PD deficiency in a large multi-centre case-control study of severe malaria, using the WHO classification of G6PD mutations to estimate each individual’s level of enzyme activity from their genotype. Aggregated across all genotypes, we find that increasing levels of G6PD deficiency are associated with decreasing risk of cerebral malaria, but with increased risk of severe malarial anaemia. Models of balancing selection based on these findings indicate that an evolutionary trade-off between different clinical outcomes of P. falciparum infection could have been a major cause of the high levels of G6PD polymorphism seen in human populations.
Geraldine Clarke, Kirk Rockett, Katja Kivinen, Christina Hubbart, Anna Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Muminatou Jallow, David Conway, Kalifa Bojang, Margaret Pinder, Stanley Usen, Fatoumatta Joof, Giorgio Sirugo, Ousmane Toure, Mahamadou Thera, Salimata Konate, Sibiry Sissoko, Amadou Niangaly, Belco Poudiougou, Valentina Mangano, Edith Bougouma, Sodiomon Sirima, David Modiano, Lucas Amenga Etego, Anita Ghansah, Kwadwo Koram, Michael Wilson, Anthony Enimil, Jennifer Evans, Olukemi Amodu, Subulade Olaniyan, Tobias Apinjoh, Regina Mugri, Andre Ndi, Carolyne Ndila, Sophie Uyoga, Alexander Macharia, Norbert Peshu, Thomas Williams, Alphaxard Manjurano, Nuno Sepúlveda, Taane Clark, Eleanor Riley, Chris Drakeley, Hugh Reyburn, Vysaul Nyirongo, David Kachala, Malcolm Molyneux, Sarah Dunstan, Nguyen Phu, Nguyen Quyen, Cao Thai, Tran Hien, Laurens Manning, Moses Laman, Peter Siba, Harin Karunajeewa, Steve Allen, Angela Allen, Timothy Davis, Pascal Michon, Ivo Mueller, Síle Molloy, Susana Campino, Angeliki Kerasidou, Victoria Cornelius, Lee Hart, Shivang Shah, Gavin Band, Chris Spencer, Tsiri Agbenyega, Eric Achidi, Ogobara Doumbo, Jeremy Farrar, Kevin Marsh, Terrie Taylor, Dominic and Kwiatkowski
Categories: malaria news feeds