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The rapid rise of a research nation

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 6:39pm
In Nature, Vol. 528, No. 7582. (2015), pp. S170-S173, doi:10.1038/528S170a
Y Zhou
Categories: malaria news feeds

Successful malaria elimination in the Ecuador-Peru border region: epidemiology and lessons learned

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:33pm
In Malaria Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-15, doi:10.1186/s12936-016-1630-x

Background: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents. Key programmatic and external factors are identified that determined the success of this eradication effort. Case description: From the mid 1980s until the early 2000s, the region experienced a surge in malaria transmission, which experts attributed to a combination of ineffective anti-malarial treatment, social-ecological factors (e.g., El Niño, increasing rice farming, construction of a reservoir), and political factors (e.g., reduction in resources and changes in management). In response to the malaria crisis, local public health practitioners from El Oro and Tumbes joined together in the mid-1990s to forge an unofficial binational collaboration for malaria control. Over the next 20 years, they effectively eradicated malaria in the region, by strengthening surveillance and treatment strategies, sharing of resources, operational research to inform policy, and novel interventions. Discussion and evaluation: The binational collaboration at the operational level was the fundamental component of the successful malaria elimination programme. This unique relationship created a trusting, open environment that allowed for flexibility, rapid response, innovation and resilience in times of crisis, and ultimately a sustainable control programme. Strong community involvement, an extensive microscopy network and ongoing epidemiologic investigations at the local level were also identified as crucial programmatic strategies. Conclusion: The results of this study provide key principles of a successful malaria elimination programme that can inform the next generation of public health professionals in the region, and serve as a guide to ongoing and future control efforts of other emerging vector borne diseases globally. © 2016 The Author(s).
LK Krisher, J Krisher, M Ambuludi, A Arichabala, E Beltrán-Ayala, P Navarrete, T Ordoñez, ME Polhemus, F Quintana, R Rochford, M Silva, J Bazo, AM Stewart-Ibarra
Categories: malaria news feeds

Presidential Address: Reinvention and Resolve

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:33pm
In Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 102, No. 6. (2016), pp. 566-571, doi:10.1645/16-113
ME Siddall
Categories: malaria news feeds

Achieving development goals for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through integrated antenatal care: Barriers and challenges

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:32pm
In BMC Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 1. (2016), doi:10.1186/s12916-016-0753-9

Background: The global health community is currently transitioning from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unfortunately, progress towards maternal, newborn and infant health MDGs has lagged significantly behind other key health goals, demanding a renewed global effort in this key health area. The World Health Organization and other institutions heralded integrated antenatal care (ANC) as the best way to address the inter-related health issues of HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in the high risk groups of pregnant women and infants; integrated ANC services also offer a mechanism to address slow progress towards improved maternal health. Discussion: There is remarkably limited evidence on best practice approaches of program implementation, acceptability and effectiveness for integrated ANC models targeting multiple diseases. Here, we discuss current integrated ANC global guidelines and the limited literature describing integrated ANC implementation and evidence for their role in addressing HIV, malaria and TB during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. We highlight the paucity of data on the effectiveness of integrated ANC models and identify significant structural barriers in the health system (funding, infrastructure, distribution, human resources), the adoption system (limited buy-in from implementers, leadership, governance) and, in the broader context, patient-centred barriers (fear, stigma, personal burdens) and barriers in funding structures. We highlight recommendations for action and discuss avenues for the global health community to develop systems to integrate multiple disease programs into ANC models of care that better address these three priority infectious diseases. Summary: With the current transition to the SDGs and concerns regarding the failure to meet maternal health MDGs, the global health community, researchers, implementers and funding bodies must work together to ensure the establishment of quality operational and implementation research to inform integrated ANC models. It is imperative that the global health community engages in a timely discussion about such implementation innovations and instigates appropriate actions to ensure advances in maternal health are sufficient to meet applicable SDGs. © 2016 The Author(s).
FJI Fowkes, BL Draper, M Hellard, M Stoové
Categories: malaria news feeds

Malaria treatment using novel nano-based drug delivery systems

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:01pm
In Journal of Drug Targeting, Vol. 25, No. 7. (2017), pp. 567-581, doi:10.1080/1061186X.2017.1291645

We reside in an era of technological innovation and advancement despite which infectious diseases like malaria remain to be one of the greatest threats to the humans. Mortality rate caused by malaria disease is a huge concern in the twenty-first century. Multiple drug resistance and nonspecific drug targeting of the most widely used drugs are the main reasons/drawbacks behind the failure in malarial therapy. Dose-related toxicity because of high doses is also a major concern. Therefore, to overcome these problems nano-based drug delivery systems are being developed to facilitate site-specific or target-based drug delivery and hence minimizing the development of resistance progress and dose-dependent toxicity issues. In this review, we discuss about the shortcomings in treating malaria and how nano-based drug delivery systems can help in curtailing the infectious disease malaria. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
UK Baruah, K Gowthamarajan, R Vanka, VVSR Karri, K Selvaraj, GM Jojo
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Artemisinin and Chinese Medicine as Tu Science

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:00pm
In Endeavour, Vol. 41, No. 3. (2017), pp. 127-135, doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2017.06.005

The story of discovery of artemisinin highlights the diversity of scientific values across time and space. Resituating artemisinin research within a broader temporal framework allows us to understand how Chinese drugs like qinghao came to articulate a space for scientific experimentation and innovation through its embodiment of alternating clusters of meanings associated with tu and yang within scientific discourse. Tu science, which was associated with terms like native, Chinese, local, rustic, mass, and crude, articulated a radical vision of science in the service of socialist revolutionary ideals. Yang science, which signified foreign, Western, elite, and professional, tended to bear the hallmarks of professionalism, transnational networks in education and training, and an emphasis on basic or foundational research. With respect to medical research, the case of artemisinin highlights how the constitution of socialist science as an interplay of tu and yang engendered different scientific values and parameters for scientific endeavor. Modern medical research in Maoist China could harness the productive energies of mass participation to technical expertise in its investigations of Chinese drugs, and under the banner of tu science, it became possible and scientifically legitimate to research Chinese drugs in ways that had previously provoked resistance and controversy. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Categories: malaria news feeds

Deconvolution of multiple infections in Plasmodium falciparum from high throughput sequencing data

CiteULike malaria tags - 5 October 2017 - 2:14pm
Bioinformatics (22 August 2017), doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btx530
Sha Zhu, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Gil McVean
Categories: malaria news feeds

Driving mosquito refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum with engineered symbiotic bacteria

CiteULike malaria tags - 2 October 2017 - 8:19pm
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6358. (29 September 2017), pp. 1399-1402, doi:10.1126/science.aan5478
Sibao Wang, André Dos-Santos, Wei Huang, Kun Liu, Mohammad Oshaghi, Ge Wei, Peter Agre, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena
Categories: malaria news feeds

Changes in the microbiota cause genetically modified Anopheles to spread in a population

CiteULike malaria tags - 2 October 2017 - 8:18pm
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6358. (29 September 2017), pp. 1396-1399, doi:10.1126/science.aak9691
Andrew Pike, Yuemei Dong, Nahid Dizaji, Anthony Gacita, Emmanuel Mongodin, George Dimopoulos
Categories: malaria news feeds