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Immune evasion of Plasmodium falciparum by RIFIN via inhibitory receptors.

CiteULike malaria tags - 4 December 2017 - 9:00am
Nature (29 November 2017)

Malaria is among the most serious infectious diseases affecting humans, accounting for approximately half a million deaths each year. Plasmodium falciparum causes most life-threatening cases of malaria. Acquired immunity to malaria is inefficient, even after repeated exposure to P. falciparum, but the immune regulatory mechanisms used by P. falciparum remain largely unknown. Here we show that P. falciparum uses immune inhibitory receptors to achieve immune evasion. RIFIN proteins are products of a polymorphic multigene family comprising approximately 150-200 genes per parasite genome that are expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. We found that a subset of RIFINs binds to either leucocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B1 (LILRB1) or leucocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR1). LILRB1-binding RIFINs inhibit activation of LILRB1-expressing B cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes isolated from patients with severe malaria were more likely to interact with LILRB1 than erythrocytes from patients with non-severe malaria, although an extended study with larger sample sizes is required to confirm this finding. Our results suggest that P. falciparum has acquired multiple RIFINs to evade the host immune system by targeting immune inhibitory receptors.
Fumiji Saito, Kouyuki Hirayasu, Takeshi Satoh, Christian Wang, John Lusingu, Takao Arimori, Kyoko Shida, Nirianne Marie Palacpac, Sawako Itagaki, Shiroh Iwanaga, Eizo Takashima, Takafumi Tsuboi, Masako Kohyama, Tadahiro Suenaga, Marco Colonna, Junichi Takagi, Thomas Lavstsen, Toshihiro Horii, Hisashi Arase
Categories: malaria news feeds

Genetic diversity of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

CiteULike malaria tags - 30 November 2017 - 1:52pm
Nature (29 November 2017), doi:10.1038/nature24995
Alistair Miles, Nicholas Harding, Giordano Bottà, Chris Clarkson, Tiago Antão, Krzysztof Kozak, Daniel Schrider, Andrew Kern, Seth Redmond, Igor Sharakhov, Richard Pearson, Christina Bergey, Michael Fontaine, Martin Donnelly, Mara Lawniczak, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Martin Donnelly, Diego Ayala, Nora Besansky, Austin Burt, Beniamino Caputo, Alessandra della Torre, Michael Fontaine, Godfray, Matthew Hahn, Andrew Kern, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Mara Lawniczak, Janet Midega, Daniel Neafsey, Samantha O’Loughlin, João Pinto, Michelle Riehle, Igor Sharakhov, Kenneth Vernick, David Weetman, Craig Wilding, Bradley White, Arlete Troco, João Pinto, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Samantha O’Loughlin, Austin Burt, Carlo Costantini, Kyanne Rohatgi, Nora Besansky, Nohal Elissa, João Pinto, Boubacar Coulibaly, Michelle Riehle, Kenneth Vernick, João Pinto, João Dinis, Janet Midega, Charles Mbogo, Philip Bejon, Craig Wilding, David Weetman, Henry Mawejje, Martin Donnelly, David Weetman, Craig Wilding, Martin Donnelly, Jim Stalker, Kirk Rockett, Eleanor Drury, Daniel Mead, Anna Jeffreys, Christina Hubbart, Kate Rowlands, Alison Isaacs, Dushyanth Jyothi, Cinzia Malangone, Paul Vauterin, Ben Jeffery, Ian Wright, Lee Hart, Krzysztof Kluczyński, Victoria Cornelius, Bronwyn MacInnis, Christa Henrichs, Rachel Giacomantonio, Dominic Kwiatkowski
Categories: malaria news feeds

Drug-resistant malaria: Molecular mechanisms and implications for public health

CiteULike malaria tags - 28 November 2017 - 12:56am
FEBS Letters, Vol. 585, No. 11. (06 June 2011), pp. 1551-1562, doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2011.04.042

Resistance to antimalarial drugs has often threatened malaria elimination efforts and historically has led to the short-term resurgence of malaria incidences and deaths. With concentrated malaria eradication efforts currently underway, monitoring drug resistance in clinical settings complemented by in vitro drug susceptibility assays and analysis of resistance markers, becomes critical to the implementation of an effective antimalarial drug policy. Understanding of the factors, which lead to the development and spread of drug resistance, is necessary to design optimal prevention and treatment strategies. This review attempts to summarize the unique factors presented by malarial parasites that lead to the emergence and spread of drug resistance, and gives an overview of known resistance mechanisms to currently used antimalarial drugs.
Ines Petersen, Richard Eastman, Michael Lanzer
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Molecular definition of multiple sites of antibody inhibition of malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen Pfs25

CiteULike malaria tags - 23 November 2017 - 12:57pm
Nature Communications, Vol. 8, No. 1. (16 November 2017), doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01924-3
Stephen Scally, Brandon McLeod, Alexandre Bosch, Kazutoyo Miura, Qi Liang, Sean Carroll, Sini Reponen, Ngan Nguyen, Eldar Giladi, Sebastian Rämisch, Vidadi Yusibov, Allan Bradley, Franck Lemiale, William Schief, Daniel Emerling, Paul Kellam, Richter King, Jean-Philippe Julien
Categories: malaria news feeds

Human vaccination against RH5 induces neutralizing antimalarial antibodies that inhibit RH5 invasion complex interactions

CiteULike malaria tags - 10 November 2017 - 9:25am
JCI Insight, Vol. 2, No. 21. (2 November 2017), doi:10.1172/jci.insight.96381
Ruth Payne, Sarah Silk, Sean Elias, Kazutoyo Miura, Ababacar Diouf, Francis Galaway, Hans de Graaf, Nathan Brendish, Ian Poulton, Oliver Griffiths, Nick Edwards, Jing Jin, Geneviève Labbé, Daniel Alanine, Loredana Siani, Stefania Di Marco, Rachel Roberts, Nicky Green, Eleanor Berrie, Andrew Ishizuka, Carolyn Nielsen, Martino Bardelli, Frederica Partey, Michael Ofori, Lea Barfod, Juliana Wambua, Linda Murungi, Faith Osier, Sumi Biswas, James McCarthy, Angela Minassian, Rebecca Ashfield, Nicola Viebig, Fay Nugent, Alexander Douglas, Johan Vekemans, Gavin Wright, Saul Faust, Adrian Hill, Carole Long, Alison Lawrie, Simon Draper
Categories: malaria news feeds

Molecular markers for artemisinin and partner drug resistance in natural Plasmodium falciparum populations following increased insecticide treated net coverage along the slope of mount Cameroon: cross-sectional study

CiteULike malaria tags - 9 November 2017 - 10:57am
Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Vol. 6, No. 1. (6 November 2017), doi:10.1186/s40249-017-0350-y
Tobias Apinjoh, Regina Mugri, Olivo Miotto, Hanesh Chi, Rolland Tata, Judith Anchang-Kimbi, Eleanor Fon, Delphine Tangoh, Robert Nyingchu, Christopher Jacob, Roberto Amato, Abdoulaye Djimde, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Eric Achidi, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa
Categories: malaria news feeds

Synergistic malaria vaccine combinations identified by systematic antigen screening

CiteULike malaria tags - 26 October 2017 - 10:23am
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (23 October 2017), 201702944, doi:10.1073/pnas.1702944114
Leyla Bustamante, Gareth Powell, Yen-Chun Lin, Michael Macklin, Nadia Cross, Alison Kemp, Paula Cawkill, Theo Sanderson, Cecile Crosnier, Nicole Muller-Sienerth, Ogobara Doumbo, Boubacar Traore, Peter Crompton, Pietro Cicuta, Tuan Tran, Gavin Wright, Julian Rayner
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Feasibility of an innovative electronic mobile system to assist health workers to collect accurate, complete and timely data in a malaria control programme in a remote setting in Kenya

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 6:40pm
In Malaria Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1. (2015), doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0965-z

Background: The cornerstone of decision making aimed at improving health services is accurate and timely health information. The Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation in Kenya decided to pilot feasibility of Fionet, an innovation that integrates diagnostics, data capture and cloud services, in its malaria control programme to demonstrate usability and feasibility by primary level workers in a remote setting in Kenya. Methods: Eleven sites comprising one sub-district hospital, ten health centres and dispensaries were selected in three districts of Kisumu County to participate. Two health workers per site were selected, trained over a two-day period in the use of the Deki Reader™ to undertake rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for malaria and data capture of patients' records. Health managers in the three districts were trained in the use of Fionet™ portal (web portal to cloud based information) to access the data uploaded by the Deki Readers. Field Support was provided by the Fio Corporation representative in Kenya. Results: A total of 5812 malaria RDTs were run and uploaded to the cloud database during this implementation research study. Uploaded data were automatically aggregated into predetermined reports for use by service managers and supervisors. The Deki Reader enhanced the performance of the health workers by not only guiding them through processing of a malaria RDT test, but also by doing the automated analysis of the RDT, capturing the image, determining whether the RDT was processed according to guidelines, and capturing full patient data for each patient encounter. Supervisors were able to perform remote Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) activities almost in real time. Conclusion: Quality, complete and timely data collection by health workers in a remote setting in Kenya is feasible. This paperless innovation brought unprecedented quality control and quality assurance in diagnosis, care and data capture, all in the hands of the health worker at point of care in an integrated way. © 2015 Soti, et al.
DO Soti, SN Kinoti, AH Omar, J Logedi, TK Mwendwa, Z Hirji, S Ferro
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Reducing neurodevelopmental disorders and disability through research and interventions

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 6:40pm
In Nature, Vol. 527, No. 7578. (2015), pp. S155-S160, doi:10.1038/nature16029

We define neurodevelopment as the dynamic inter-relationship between genetic, brain, cognitive, emotional and behavioural processes across the developmental lifespan. Significant and persistent disruption to this dynamic process through environmental and genetic risk can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders and disability. Research designed to ameliorate neurodevelopmental disorders in low-and middle-income countries, as well as globally, will benefit enormously from the ongoing advances in understanding their genetic and epigenetic causes, as modified by environment and culture. We provide examples of advances in the prevention and treatment of, and the rehabilitation of those with, neurodevelopment disorders in low-and middle-income countries, along with opportunities for further strategic research initiatives. Our examples are not the only possibilities for strategic research, but they illustrate problems that, when solved, could have a considerable impact in low-resource settings. In each instance, research in low-and middle-income countries led to innovations in identification, surveillance and treatment of a neurodevelopmental disorder. These innovations have also been integrated with genotypic mapping of neurodevelopmental disorders, forming important preventative and rehabilitative interventions with the potential for high impact. These advances will ultimately allow us to understand how epigenetic influences shape neurodevelopmental risk and resilience over time and across populations. Clearly, the most strategic areas of research opportunity involve cross-disciplinary integration at the intersection between the environment, brain or behaviour neurodevelopment, and genetic and epigenetic science. At these junctions a robust integrative cross-disciplinary scientific approach is catalysing the creation of technologies and interventions for old problems. Such approaches will enable us to achieve and sustain the United Nations moral and legal mandate for child health and full development as a basic global human right.This article has not been written or reviewed by Nature editors. Nature accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of the information provided.
MJ Boivin, AM Kakooza, BC Warf, LL Davidson, EL Grigorenko
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Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 6:40pm
In Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 93, No. 12. (2015), pp. 862-866, doi:10.2471/BLT.14.151167

Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them. © 2015, World Health Organization.
T Visser, J Daily, N Hotte, C Dolkart, J Cunningham, P Yadav
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Software to facilitate remote sensing data access for disease early warning systems

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 6:40pm
In Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol. 74 (2015), pp. 247-257, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.07.006

Satellite remote sensing produces an abundance of environmental data that can be used in the study of human health. To support the development of early warning systems for mosquito-borne diseases, we developed an open-source, client-based software application to enable the Epidemiological Applications of Spatial Technologies (EASTWeb). Two major design decisions were full automation of the discovery, retrieval and processing of remote sensing data from multiple sources, and making the system easily modifiable in response to changes in data availability and user needs. Key innovations that helped to achieve these goals were the implementation of a software framework for data downloading and the design of a scheduler that tracks the complex dependencies among multiple data processing tasks and makes the system resilient to external errors. EASTWeb has been successfully applied to support forecasting of West Nile virus outbreaks in the United States and malaria epidemics in the Ethiopian highlands. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Y Liu, J Hu, I Snell-Feikema, MS VanBemmel, A Lamsal, MC Wimberly
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An ethnopharmacological and historical analysis of "dictamnus", a European traditional herbal medicine

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 6:39pm
In Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 175 (2015), pp. 390-406, doi:10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.011

Ethnopharmacological relevance and background "Dictamnus" was a popular name for a group of medicinal herbaceous plant species of the Rutaceae and Lamiaceae, which since the 4th century have been used for gynaecological problems and other illnesses BCE and still appear in numerous ethnobotanical records. Aims This research has as four overarching aims: Determining the historical evolution of medical preparations labelled "Dictamnus" and the different factors affecting this long-standing herbal tradition. Deciphering and differentiating those medicinal uses of "Dictamnus" which strictly correspond to Dictamnus (Rutaceae), from those of Origanum dictamnus and other Lamiaceae species. Quantitatively assessing the dependence from herbal books, and pharmaceutical tradition, of modern Dictamnus ethnobotanical records. Determining whether differences between Western and Eastern Europe exist with regards to the Dictamnus albus uses in ethnopharmacology and ethnomedicine. Methods An exhaustive review of herbals, classical pharmacopoeias, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological literature was conducted. Systematic analysis of uses reported which were standardized according to International Classification of Diseases - 10 and multivariate analysis using factorial, hierarchical and neighbour joining methods was undertaken. Results and discussion The popular concept "Dictamnus" includes Origanum dictamnus L., Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth. and B. acetabulosa (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), as well as Dictamnus albus L. and D. hispanicus Webb ex Willk. (Rutaceae), with 86 different types of uses. Between 1000 and 1700 CE numerous complex preparations with "Dictamnus" were used in the treatment of 35 different pathologies. On biogeographical grounds the widespread D. albus is a far more likely prototypical "Dictamnus" than the Cretan endemic Origanum dictamnus. However both form integral parts of the "Dictamnus" complex. Evidence exists for a sufficiently long and coherent tradition for D. albus and D. hispanicus, use to treat 47 different categories of diseases. Conclusions This approach is a model for understanding the cultural history of plants and their role as resources for health care. "Dictamnus" shows how transmission of traditional knowledge about materia medica, over 26 centuries, represents remarkable levels of development and innovation. All this lead us to call attention to D. albus and D. hispanicus which are highly promising as potential herbal drug leads. The next steps of research should be to systematically analyse phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical evidence and to develop safety, pharmacology and toxicology profiles of the traditional preparations. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
V Martínez-Francés, D Rivera, M Heinrich, C Obón, S Ríos
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Exploring health practitioners' acceptability of a prospective semi-quantitative pfHRP2 device to define severe malaria in the Democratic Republic of Congo

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 6:39pm
In Malaria Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1. (2015), doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0963-1

Background: A rapid diagnostic tool is being developed to discern severely ill children with severe malaria from children who are ill with alternative febrile diseases but have coincidental peripheral blood parasitaemia. The device semi-quantitatively measures plasma pfHRP2 and has the potential to reduce mortality in children with severe febrile illnesses by improving diagnosis. The aim of this study is to identify contributing and inhibiting factors that affect healthcare practitioners' acceptability of this prospective diagnostic device in a high malaria transmission setting in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: Data were collected qualitatively by conducting semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of health professionals in Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo. In total, 11 interviews were held with professionals at four different institutes. Results: Four key findings emerged: (1) Congolese practitioners perceive the semi-quantitative pfHRP2 device as a welcome intervention as they recognize the limited reliability of their current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to severe febrile illnesses; (2) compatibility of the semi-quantitative pfHRP2 device with clinical equipment and competences of Congolese health practitioners is considered to be limited, especially in rural settings; (3) a formal training programme is crucial for correct understanding and application of the semi-quantitative pfHRP2 device; and, (4) provision of evidence to practitioners, and support from health authorities would be important to establish confidence in the semi-quantitative pfHRP2 device. Conclusions: Congolese practitioners perceive the prospective semi-quantitative pfHRP2 device as a welcome addition to their clinical equipment. The device could improve current diagnostic work-up of severe febrile illness, which might consequently improve treatment choices. However, despite this recognized potential, several hurdles and drivers need to be taken into account when implementing this device in DR Congo. © 2015 de Haan et al.
F De Haan, MA Onyamboko, CI Fanello, CJ Woodrow, Y Lubell, WPC Boon, AM Dondorp
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The rapid rise of a research nation

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 6:39pm
In Nature, Vol. 528, No. 7582. (2015), pp. S170-S173, doi:10.1038/528S170a
Y Zhou
Categories: malaria news feeds

Successful malaria elimination in the Ecuador-Peru border region: epidemiology and lessons learned

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:33pm
In Malaria Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-15, doi:10.1186/s12936-016-1630-x

Background: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents. Key programmatic and external factors are identified that determined the success of this eradication effort. Case description: From the mid 1980s until the early 2000s, the region experienced a surge in malaria transmission, which experts attributed to a combination of ineffective anti-malarial treatment, social-ecological factors (e.g., El Niño, increasing rice farming, construction of a reservoir), and political factors (e.g., reduction in resources and changes in management). In response to the malaria crisis, local public health practitioners from El Oro and Tumbes joined together in the mid-1990s to forge an unofficial binational collaboration for malaria control. Over the next 20 years, they effectively eradicated malaria in the region, by strengthening surveillance and treatment strategies, sharing of resources, operational research to inform policy, and novel interventions. Discussion and evaluation: The binational collaboration at the operational level was the fundamental component of the successful malaria elimination programme. This unique relationship created a trusting, open environment that allowed for flexibility, rapid response, innovation and resilience in times of crisis, and ultimately a sustainable control programme. Strong community involvement, an extensive microscopy network and ongoing epidemiologic investigations at the local level were also identified as crucial programmatic strategies. Conclusion: The results of this study provide key principles of a successful malaria elimination programme that can inform the next generation of public health professionals in the region, and serve as a guide to ongoing and future control efforts of other emerging vector borne diseases globally. © 2016 The Author(s).
LK Krisher, J Krisher, M Ambuludi, A Arichabala, E Beltrán-Ayala, P Navarrete, T Ordoñez, ME Polhemus, F Quintana, R Rochford, M Silva, J Bazo, AM Stewart-Ibarra
Categories: malaria news feeds

Presidential Address: Reinvention and Resolve

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:33pm
In Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 102, No. 6. (2016), pp. 566-571, doi:10.1645/16-113
ME Siddall
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Achieving development goals for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through integrated antenatal care: Barriers and challenges

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:32pm
In BMC Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 1. (2016), doi:10.1186/s12916-016-0753-9

Background: The global health community is currently transitioning from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unfortunately, progress towards maternal, newborn and infant health MDGs has lagged significantly behind other key health goals, demanding a renewed global effort in this key health area. The World Health Organization and other institutions heralded integrated antenatal care (ANC) as the best way to address the inter-related health issues of HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in the high risk groups of pregnant women and infants; integrated ANC services also offer a mechanism to address slow progress towards improved maternal health. Discussion: There is remarkably limited evidence on best practice approaches of program implementation, acceptability and effectiveness for integrated ANC models targeting multiple diseases. Here, we discuss current integrated ANC global guidelines and the limited literature describing integrated ANC implementation and evidence for their role in addressing HIV, malaria and TB during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. We highlight the paucity of data on the effectiveness of integrated ANC models and identify significant structural barriers in the health system (funding, infrastructure, distribution, human resources), the adoption system (limited buy-in from implementers, leadership, governance) and, in the broader context, patient-centred barriers (fear, stigma, personal burdens) and barriers in funding structures. We highlight recommendations for action and discuss avenues for the global health community to develop systems to integrate multiple disease programs into ANC models of care that better address these three priority infectious diseases. Summary: With the current transition to the SDGs and concerns regarding the failure to meet maternal health MDGs, the global health community, researchers, implementers and funding bodies must work together to ensure the establishment of quality operational and implementation research to inform integrated ANC models. It is imperative that the global health community engages in a timely discussion about such implementation innovations and instigates appropriate actions to ensure advances in maternal health are sufficient to meet applicable SDGs. © 2016 The Author(s).
FJI Fowkes, BL Draper, M Hellard, M Stoové
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Malaria treatment using novel nano-based drug delivery systems

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:01pm
In Journal of Drug Targeting, Vol. 25, No. 7. (2017), pp. 567-581, doi:10.1080/1061186X.2017.1291645

We reside in an era of technological innovation and advancement despite which infectious diseases like malaria remain to be one of the greatest threats to the humans. Mortality rate caused by malaria disease is a huge concern in the twenty-first century. Multiple drug resistance and nonspecific drug targeting of the most widely used drugs are the main reasons/drawbacks behind the failure in malarial therapy. Dose-related toxicity because of high doses is also a major concern. Therefore, to overcome these problems nano-based drug delivery systems are being developed to facilitate site-specific or target-based drug delivery and hence minimizing the development of resistance progress and dose-dependent toxicity issues. In this review, we discuss about the shortcomings in treating malaria and how nano-based drug delivery systems can help in curtailing the infectious disease malaria. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
UK Baruah, K Gowthamarajan, R Vanka, VVSR Karri, K Selvaraj, GM Jojo
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Artemisinin and Chinese Medicine as Tu Science

CiteULike malaria tags - 13 October 2017 - 5:00pm
In Endeavour, Vol. 41, No. 3. (2017), pp. 127-135, doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2017.06.005

The story of discovery of artemisinin highlights the diversity of scientific values across time and space. Resituating artemisinin research within a broader temporal framework allows us to understand how Chinese drugs like qinghao came to articulate a space for scientific experimentation and innovation through its embodiment of alternating clusters of meanings associated with tu and yang within scientific discourse. Tu science, which was associated with terms like native, Chinese, local, rustic, mass, and crude, articulated a radical vision of science in the service of socialist revolutionary ideals. Yang science, which signified foreign, Western, elite, and professional, tended to bear the hallmarks of professionalism, transnational networks in education and training, and an emphasis on basic or foundational research. With respect to medical research, the case of artemisinin highlights how the constitution of socialist science as an interplay of tu and yang engendered different scientific values and parameters for scientific endeavor. Modern medical research in Maoist China could harness the productive energies of mass participation to technical expertise in its investigations of Chinese drugs, and under the banner of tu science, it became possible and scientifically legitimate to research Chinese drugs in ways that had previously provoked resistance and controversy. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
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Deconvolution of multiple infections in Plasmodium falciparum from high throughput sequencing data

CiteULike malaria tags - 5 October 2017 - 2:14pm
Bioinformatics (22 August 2017), doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btx530
Sha Zhu, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Gil McVean
Categories: malaria news feeds